What is the change of the Earth seen from the huge depression "entrance to the basement" that opened the mouth openly in the permafrost area of Siberia?
In the area near the North Pole of the Northern HemispherePermafrostThere is a zone covered with frozen soil called so. However, dissolution of permafrost which is thought to be caused by global warming in recent years has been observed, and a phenomenon that a wide range over 1 km in length is greatly depressed has occurred.
BBC - Earth - In Siberia there is a huge crater and it is getting bigger
Siberia's 'doorway to the underworld' is getting so big it's uncovering ancient forests - ScienceAlert
The capital city of the Sakha Republic located in the northeastern part of RussiaYakutskIn areas further away from Tohoku in the direction of Tohoku, about 660 km apart, a region where a part of the vast grassland spreading all over has been greatly depressed like a crater has been confirmed. This partBatagaika crater(Bataguika · crater), and in the longest place it is a crater of the size of 1 km and in the deep part 86 meters is also depressed.
You can also check the picture on the map with Google Maps. When you look at it from above, you can see that the batagaka · crater consists of the part corresponding to the head of the tadpoles and the elongated part extending long like the tail.
It is a crater which is also called "entrance to the underground world" by local residents, but in reality it is known that the influence of the changing global environment is a phenomenon which appears to be large. Frank Günther of Alfred Wegener Polar Ocean Research Institute in GermanyReport released in 2016According to the survey over the past ten years, it is clear that this crater has been expanding at a rate of 10 meters per year. In addition, in the year when the temperature was high, the expansion speed reached 30 meters in one year, too.
The reason that this crater was born is that it was a large-scale logging in the surrounding area that was done in the 1960s. Until then, the shade of the soil covered with trees became exposed to the sunlight, especially as the temperature rose, the frozen ground melted in the summer season, and the surface runoff began Thing. The collapse expanded in 2008 as a result of the massive floods, and it seems that the scale is still expanding even now.
Dissolution of frozen soil not only gives a local effect but it also has the effect of producing the change of the whole planet. Materials such as carbon dioxide and methane, which is a type of greenhouse gas, are confined in the frozen soil, and these substances are released into the atmosphere by the melting of the frozen soil, which is thought to accelerate the global warming of the earth It is. The amount of greenhouse gases trapped in the entire frozen soil is considered to be the same amount as the greenhouse gases contained in the modern atmosphere, and as the dissolution of frozen continues, further greenhouse gas Is released to the atmosphere and the temperature rises, the risk that "positive feedback" occurs is pointed out.
A movie that understands that well is kore. It is a strange sight that shakes with Jura as if the ground floats on water, but it is said that methane is full under this ground. As melting of frozen progresses, methane is released and accumulates in the basement, it appears like a bubble and appears on the ground. And after this, the methane accumulated in the basement is released into the atmosphere, and at the same time the surface covered with methane collapses to form a small crater. Such a crater appeared on a large scale is the above-mentioned batagaka crater.
Underground methane bubbles - YouTube
Meanwhile, scientific merits are also confirmed with this crater. From the pattern of the collapsed ground surface, scientists are paying attention because we can read the weather fluctuations of the earth 200,000 years ago. From that point on, it is clear that the Earth has repeated the ice ages and warm seasons in the time axis of tens of thousands of years so far, even in view of those records, it is still contemporary The speed of change seems to be rapidly unprecedented in the past.